Author: A Contributor


Neo-functionalism, Intergovernmentalism, Supranationalism and Subsidiarity

You could easily get asked a 15 marker on any of these concepts, the specification says the following about what you need to know: Various theories of integration and the associated benefits and drawbacks of such theories on their own and in comparison to other theories. These include neo-functionalism, intergovernmentalism, supranationalism, ‘pooled’ sovereignty, federalism, multi-level […]


Is the UK still the ‘awkward partner’ in Europe

Although under Blair there seemed to be some movement towards a closer relationship with Europe, taking Britain into the Social Chapter, taking a lead in the proposed constitution and engaging in discussions with the Europeans, there were still ‘red lines’ drawn by Brown regarding tax and other policies. Brown established the 5 criteria that had […]


How do the majors parties differ on EU policy?

Historically, the Conservatives were pro-EU taking us in, in 1973 and Labour was anti-EU under Foot seeing it as a ‘Capitalist club’. Since then, the tables have turned as the EU helped topple Thatcher and Major and unify Labour. However the differences between the party have typically been seen through rhetoric as opposed to action. […]

Kipper Williams on retirement age

Pensions explained

Context: -People are living longer, increased government spending on pensions is seen as untenable for the future considering the current economic climate. The coalition argue that they will save £3.5bn a year for every year that the retirement age is raised. -1 in 5 retiring in 2013 will be living below the poverty line. Coalition: […]

George Osborne

Banking reform

Banks contribute 9.4% to the UK’s economy and 3.6% to the UK job market in 2011. Because of this reliance, the sector is increasingly difficult to reform. Banks resist reform and there is fear that if reform doesn’t happen internationally then it can make domestic banks less competitive. This teamed with a historic ‘hands off’ […]


Coalition environment policy overview (15 mark plans)

Nuclear -The coalition agreement reached a compromise on Nuclear power that there would be no new power stations subsidised by taxpayers however the government has spent £68bn dealing with old nuclear reactors -Coalition had planned for 8 new plants to open over its tenure in government however energy companies such as EDF are looking for […]


Education overview

Overview and analysis of the Coalitions education policy. 1. Academies More than 1 in 4 of England’s state school students attend an academy school now. There are now 2886 academies compared to just 203 before the Academies Act 2010. Academies give individual schools more power by bypassing the LEA. The coalition argues this gives more […]

News update

Mon 29th -Iain Duncan Smith suggested wealthy pensioners should voluntarily hand back their universal benefit payments -The commons public accounts committee said the Chancellors £310bn plan to boost economic growth through infrastructure projects was unrealistic about how much private capital there was and said that taxpayers could end up shouldering the cost. This follows IMF […]


Economic gloom

Upon entering office, Osborne said he wanted the UK’s AAA credit rating to act as a ‘benchmark’ for his performance as Chancellor.  Compared to Osborne, Chief Secretary to the Treasury Danny Alexander at the time described the credit rating as ‘not the be all and end all’. Moody’s downgrade of the UK’s credit rating to […]

Pick of the Papers, Sunday 16th September

1) Welfare bill won’t work, key advisers tell Iain Duncan Smith (The Guardian) (Welfare) Committee condemns ‘unfair’ plans for part-time workers amid growing controversy over universal credit 2) Michael Gove to replace GCSEs with O-level style qualifications (The Guardian) (Education) Education secretary’s major reform of the examination system for school-leavers scheduled for introduction in September […]

Pick of the papers, Sunday 9th September

1. The prime minister’s masterclass in how not to conduct a reshuffle (Observer) (PM&Cabinet) David Cameron failed most of the 10 tests on whether recasting a government has any serious point, says Andrew Rawnsley 2. Whitehall dares to whisper: we’re out of recession (Mail on Sunday) (Economy) A look at some key economic policies that are soon to emerge […]


“A Boris for every city” – Mayoral system rejected across the country

Along with a series of local election defeats the coalition’s localism agenda took a battering during their round of referendums. With people in Manchester, Birmingham, Nottingham, Bradford, Coventry, Sheffield, Leeds, Wakefield and Newcastle voting against the idea in local referendums, only Bristol voters bucked the trend and provided the Prime Minister with some comfort.